"Certificates of Need: An Oklahoma CON that Needs Repealing" by Byron Schlomach, Per Bylund, and Vance H. Fried provides a brief history Certificates of Need (CON) in the U.S., Oklahoma's two CON laws, their economic effects, and recommends their repeal. Summary

1889's Papers on CON

Certificate of Need (CON) laws block the normal course of market economic development by making it illegal for potential new providers to enter a market without first getting government permission to do so. Unlike licensing, which sets provider qualifications that, once met, allows for entry, CON laws limit entry based on governmentally-determined need. This potentially blocks higher-quality providers from entering a market. CON laws limit quality and quantity, and increase price in a market.